The most common surgical procedure of the oesophagus section include hatial hernia, gastroesophagial reflux (GERD), esophagus achalasia and neoplasm.
Hiatal Hernia and GERD are extremely common and annoying disorders affecting patients lifestyle due to its side effects such as sleeping disorders, long term drug usage that may cause esophagus physiology changes (Barret esophagus, neoplasm), etc.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus. GERD is usually caused by changes in the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus, including abnormal relaxation of the lower esophangeal sphincter, which normally holds the top of the stomach closed; impaired expulsion of gastric reflux from the esophagus, or a hiatal hernia. These changes may be permanent or temporary ("transient").